Moss (sphagnum moss)

As shelter. Moss was often used to chink log house walls and roofs, and to bank the sides of tents against the wind.


As medicine.  The buds, which are very sticky, are collected in the spring before they open and then boiled.  Drinking the tea relieves cold symptoms.  The resin which collects on the side of a pot can be used for cuts.


Red willow (alder)

Drinking the liquid, or rubbing it directly on the affected area, will soothe stiff and aching joints.


Of all the parts of the spruce tree, some Elders believe the cones make the best medicine (Andre 1995).


People should leave an offering when collecting any part of a tamarack tree.  Caroline Andre of Tsiigehtchic said, “This is real good medicine.  They say you have to pay for it, leave sugar or tea behind.”


Any kind of green willow leaves can be crushed and chewed and applied to insect bites, burns, rashes, aches, cuts and toothaches.

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